The essential guide
In view of the increasing diversity of products and variants, it is necessary to enhance manufacturing productivity and flexibility in order to maintain or increase competitiveness. The use of industrial robots is one suitable way of achieving the flexible automation required.
The term “robot” originates in the Slavic word “robota”, in the sense of laborious work. In the technical sense, however, industrial robots are defined as distinct from other automation devices and working machines. Nevertheless, there is a certain amount of international confusion over the term, as similar systems, such as manipulators or loading devices, are often counted as robots and included in the statistics.
The reason for this is that in all such systems, the mechanical structure consists of a kinematic chain with a fixed part and an arm (or several arms) on which a wrist with a gripper or tool (e.g. welding torch) is mounted.
R.U.R. (Czech: Rosumovi Umeli Roboti) is the title of a play by the Czech author Karel Capek that appeared in 1921. It is about a company that manufactures humanoid machines (robots) to relieve the workload on humans. These machines subsequently overthrow society and destroy humanity.
The Laws of Robotics were first described by Isaac Asimov in his collection of science-
Initially, these laws only applied to “literary” robots, but they have since come to influence the programming of modern robots and are used in modified forms in competitions, e.g. for cleaning robots. Modern industrial robots are also programmed in accordance with these laws, even if most robot programmers are unaware of the fact.
Asimov’s laws state:
1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
It should be noted that the laws are hierarchical in nature. Although the laws appear to be clearly formulated, they are not “foolproof”, primarily because they are interpreted by humans, i.e. imperfectly and incompletely.
The first industrial robot, later known as the Unimate, came about after its inventors,
George Devol and Joseph Engelberger, discussed a science-
Rossum’s Universal Robot
The Unimate robot was manuctured by Unimation